Travelogue Asia Minor.
- Category: Teachings & Articles
- Published: Friday, 11 August 2017 02:06
- Written by Augusto A. Kho
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JUN 12/ MON
"Gunaidhen"! Can you say that?" Filipinos: "Gunaidhen." Meltem: You're good! You're good! really you pronounced it right in your first try. "Gunaidhen" means" Good morning!" Good Morning again. We will travel on this route today: IZMIR -SARDIS - PHILADEPHIA – PAMUKKALE. That how our itinerary goes We have couple of hours left in Izmir to go around in this city
Peps: Izmir is the ancient city of Smyrna. Izmir is a city as well as a province. In the province of Izmir, there you will find the ancient seven (7) churches of Asia.
Emile Meltem speaking:
This morning we will go to ancient Agora, that is Greek means "wide or open air space , fear of being in open spaces." Agora is the opposite of claustrophobia (fear of closed areas)
In ancient time, they use this term agora as "marketplace, trade, business, or official, gathering and celebrations." There are two agora in ancient times - the commercial agora or state agora which is called “forum” by the Romans.
(PEPS: The Colosseo from the ancient Roman Empire now in Rome for example is a state agora where Christians are thrown away in Colosseo or Agora either to be beaten to death by the blood-thirsty gladiators or to be crushed by ferocious hungry lions).
In Izmir, ancient agora is located in the city. It is Smyrna with 3.5 Million people (now) , a large city, 2nd largest city in Turkey next only to Istanbul, it is a settlement of ancient city with spas and it is located around the bay of Izmir.
Look there is an American here with the local people on excavation? Oh you have been in this spot since July last year, I didn't know that. How could you excavate this?
(Peps: Emile Meltem was talking to an American archaeologist and to the local diggers)
In the city centre, we can only find some few places you can have for the relics. And you and have only this agora. Just like yesterday in Thyatira which is now a cemetery.
This ancient ruins are back to the Ottoman Empire. See those Ottoman stones with high rise buildings on the background? It is right in the heart of the city. On your left is the Agora restoration area. You look at this map. It is Smyrna, one of the oldest, Neolithic times around 2,000 years ago.
(PEPS: Neolithic Period begun from 10,200 B.C. or before Christ).
Remains found are dated 8,000 BC due to the ancient artefacts found such as axes, bronze tools, and others which have been found from layer to layer from the debris. Remains found changed a big because of the silting at the base of the seashore.
This harbour is Roman, the square area is agora, close to the harbour. This city wall is from here up to the hills, with castle and fortress, with wall, stadium and theatre. This place was attributed to its founder Alexander the Great. Alexander came to slopes of Mt. Pago or Kadifekale.
(PEPS: Kadifekale (literally "the velvet castle" in Turkish) is the name of the hill located within the urban zone of İzmir, Turkey),
This place is dedicated to god, Nemesis. There is the Temple of Nemesis , goddess of retribution and revenge. Apollo an orator is associated here in this city. Marcus Aurelio and his wife Faustina are generous donors to construct this Roman agora.
(PEPS: Roman emperor (century 161–180), best known for his Meditations on Stoic philosophy.)
By 187 AD, this is partly destroyed by an earthquake. This agora is the seat of administrative political, social, judicial and commercial affairs of the city. Ottoman tombstones are there where excavators found hundreds of human remains or skulls The Roman Empire remained their culture there with Corinthian styles(which is Greek).
The Acropolis on the top of Smyrna has its defense and castle for Alexander the Great with coins that bear his name. With city ruins on the slopes, to the sea level, surrounding the cities.
Those telecommunication towers, with pine trees behind that was where the ancient stadium was. This Agora existed during the time of martyrdom of Polycarp. Do you know him?
(PEPS: Polycarp ( Latin: Polycarpus; AD 69 – 155) was a 2nd-century Christian bishop of Smyrna. Traditions and ancient philosopher attributed Polycarp with John the Beloved. Polycarp was said to be a personal disciple of John).
On the left, slopes is where the ancient theatre was once located which is under excavation now. The government paid for the houses, theatre and others to clear this to have it excavated. They found things down there. It will become soon become the archaeology centre of the city. . Izmir is rising again
Look down there. The arches and columns. That is the spring water in Smyrna with ancient writings there. This waters flows there down from ages and this is a network of good water system that existed even from the ancient time.
Pausanias, a geographer and traveller during 2nd A.D. had a relationship with Alexander the Great and shared to him his dream in Mount Pagos in front of the Temple of Nemesis. Alexander allegedly saw this deity of retribution and revenge in a vision.
(PEPS: 143–176 A.D. Greek historian and geographer)
Smyrna coins exist in ancient time. This is the basement of east portico. They say it is the oldest living city. Izmir’s life still going on till at this very present day. We go now to East portico. Look the wall that are plastered. Over here is where archaeologist found most amazing graffiti, , paintings and drawings. Recently, they found drawings on the walls about Smyrna boats. Over here, Mark can you talk about inscriptions?
Archaeologist Dr.l Mark Fairchild
In this corridor, these graffiti and inscriptions are extremely important. It is Christian inscriptions from the church of Smyrna.
Mark reads the Greek inscription from the stones saying:
“Locate now a spot. This Smyrna is one of the 7 churches back in Neolithic period, They call Kosova period, the city moves, then relocated again to west from here. Here is an excellent excavation there. Alexander the Great believed this city cannot be defended so he transferred to this Mt. Pagos which is the Kadifekale.”
Kadifekale (literally "the velvet castle" in Turkish) is the name of the hill located within the urban zone of İzmir, Turkey, as well as being the name of the ancient castle on top of the same hill. Both the hill and the castle were named Pagos (Greek: Pagus under the Roman Empire) in pre-Turkish times and by the local Greeks in modern times.The summit where the castle is found is located at a distance of about 2 km from the shoreline and commands a general view of a large part of the city of İzmir, as well as of the Gulf of İzmir. Administratively, the hill area covers six quarters constituted by slums in their large part, one named Kadifekale like the hill, and others Alireis, Altay, İmariye, Kosova and Yenimahalle. Source: Guide to the Eastern Mediterranean. Macmillan Publishing. 1904).
Back to Mark:
In 2007, the metropolitan municipality of İzmir started renovation and restoration works in Kadifekale
The persecution, harassments, knees buckled, some gave up faith, some compromise and went to imperial temple and worship there yet maintaining Christian faith.
Unlike Antipas who is willing to die for Christ (Rev. 2:13), some believers in Pergamum can compromise the faith..
Most of the church, as these churches are mentioned in Revelation, John gave good things(commendations) and bad things (rebuke and warnings) but in Smyrna, John gave only good things.
Though some difficulties were experienced by Christians here then the governor of this city in Smyrna was watching the believers. . If they cooperate with Emperor, they will be provided with bathhouses, aqueducts, theatres, and tax exemptions.
The biggest honour that can be accorded to a city to build a temple of worship, including Smyrna or Pergamum and Ephesus. They competed with one another. As consequence, people are harassing the Christians to get away the program and worship Dionysian. They could be beaten, killed or persecuted for economic issues.
(Peps: Mark Fairchild’s claim of “such biggest honour accorded is to build a temple worship” refer to the “Imperial Cult” during the Roman Empire. Study the “Imperial cult of ancient Rome “ and check how a state or government particularly the Senate can give a leader a “de facto monarch” status or Hitler-type governance that monopolizes the affair of the whole nation).
Revelation 13 talks about people who worship the Beast. He forces every one, rich and poor to receive the mark. No one could buy or sell unless they receive the mark of the beast. So when they go to agora they must show the mark. As a consequence life is so difficult. Letter let us go there, Rev. 2:
Graffiti there, the gladiators, it is there, they are killing many Christian that times... In this wall, earliest graffiti are recorded here. Christians who were put into these dungeons started scribbling on the walls and stones about their faith to Christ which reads: " the one who has given us the Spirit .." It amazing inscription since 15 years ago when I was here, this inscription have not found yet...
Bishop Balais was leading the prayer for the Church in Smyrna:
We are free to worship in the Philippines unlike in Middle East, China and Indochina. Where is Peps? Peps would you pray for the persecuted Christians from Middle East, China and Indochina. Peps started praying for the said persecuted countries
"These stones are witnesses you are alpha and omega. May your strength will come upon them, the Smyrna, breathe upon Smyrna.. Just like they circled Jericho, through faith subdued kingdoms, thrown to lion den, they did not deny nor betray you instead they abreast death. Raise. Up end time generation -'they did not love their lives... We declare that on this city...not just play religion but to manifest the faith.. We breathe life to Smyrna, in Turkey, let them be a carrier of your Gospel. We dedicate Philippines to bless this nation...," Bishop Daniel Balais added his prayers which was joined corporately by the faithful from the Philippines. …. "Graffiti Salonu" as it reads from a sign board.
Back to Emile Meltem:
This is the Church of Polycarp.
Izmir has largest Christian population all over Turkey next only to Istanbul. It is a living church. If you look other churches, you could not find large, Christian population there.
No Christian community living now in Ephesus, Thyatira, Pergamum, Philadelphia (which we will be seeing shortly today) .Laodicea church - we will visit that tomorrow. Most of those churches were abandoned by the Christians. Sardis, we will see today, no one living there as far as I know.
Smyrna is still alive. This is where many Christian living here. Catholics, Protestant and house-churches are here. They don’t know how many number are Christians here. Perhap over a thousand people. It is a living-church.
We are now very close to our office where will visit the Church of Polycarp. Our office is just across to that church. They already opened the door. Roxanne come in. Follow her.
Church of Polycarp
We are now entering the Church of Polycarp. There's a tombstone in the courtyard as you can see. There are wall panel. This is a 16th century Roman Catholic Church. They said they have the first church here before this 16th century church was built here. You notice the church. Look at this beautiful painting.. Talking about Polycarp, anybody knows? Yes, the first Bishop of Smyrna (said to be disciple of John the Beloved).
At the end 17th century, a French artist painted the image of Polycarp. ..There were lots of foreigners here in ancient times. Jews were here as well, they are still active community.
Jews history in Europe? When they moved from Spain inquisition. Ottoman king wrote a letter to Spain and the Jews in 14th century. These Jews were speaking in Spanish and Hebrews...
(PEPS: Spanish Inquisition, (1478–1834), judicial institution ostensibly established to combat heresy in Spain. In practice, the Spanish Inquisition served to consolidate power in the monarchy of the newly unified Spanish kingdom, but it achieved that end through infamously brutal methods - Encyclopedia Britanica).
You see Polycarp, was tied down on a wood; skinned; then thrown into a blazing oven for not abandoning his Christian faith according to historian Ignacius, a 2nd century historian wrote his ordeal.
Polycarp is a known disciple of John the Beloved. He lived between 69 A.D. -114 A.D. He was a native of Izmir while majority are pagan then. Polycarp is the first Christian bishop in Smyrna.
Imperialism exists, as well as cult worship and worship to emperor, Polycarp gradually he had followings and the Roman did not like it. The governor called Polycarp and demanded him to give up his faith. For several times, Polycarp said “No!.”
He and other Christians were placed on hillside, they were set ablazed but the fire did not harm him. And people said, "kill him, kill him." Then 82 years old, Polycarp said, ," "For all these years, my Lord did not give me any harm, why should I will leave my King?" . The fire kissed her body yet he was not harmed, until he was taken out from the fire and the Roman soldiers thrust his body with sword and he died. .
Pastor Daniel Balais led in prayer:
Thank you for such Smyrna church. May your blessing comes to the city till He comes... This church was founded by the blood of the martyr...thank you for this church- Catholic, protestant and house- churches.
(PEPS: It reminds me of the famous phrase of Italian atheist and philosopher Tertullian who witnessed the horrifying massacre against the faithfuls of Christ who later on got converted as well. His famous quotation is, "The blood of the martyrs are the seed of the church." )
We are ready to leave Izmir. Sadly
We are now heading Sardis, 1 hour drive there. We will take our lunch near Sardis. Later we will go to archaeological important finds.
Tumulus. Are you familiar with that word? There are over 300 tumulus over here as you see them from your left. Tumulus here are called the "Pyramids of Turkey." These hills are artificial hills. It is man-made Underneath is a large burial rooms or tombs dated back in Lydian Period in the Roman Empire. In Pergamum was....
(PEPS:" tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are also known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, and may be found throughout much of the world. A cairn, which is a mound of stones built for various purposes, may also originally have been a tumulus.
The word tumulus is Latin for 'mound' or 'small hill', which is derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *teuh2- with extended zero grade *tum-, 'to bulge, swell' also found in tumor, thumb, thigh, and thousand.')
Ionia is a known province of Lydia in the bible times. Anyhow.. 7 Century BC.? 100 years ago from this time, there is a local kingdom called Lydian Kingdom. It is a region, time, province, a culture. The Lydian king was buried on those monumental things called tumulus.
(Ionia (Ancient Greek: is an ancient region of central coastal Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmirIonia (is an ancient region of central coastal Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir,).
They were buried with important and personal articles like their drinking cups, clothes, jewelries, etc. some archaeologists wanted to dig when they see these things it is very helpful to them.
This is a very fertile area where olive trees are planted. And also, you see wheat on your left. And also peaches, apricots and also grapevines. A special dish in this area is spicy sauce... I am starving. How about you? Look at that mountain with that white thing on the slopes. That is the theatre of Lydia, an ancient one...
(PEPS: Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian…. We stopped by at Egemen Cafe and Restaurant for our lunch)
Miss Meltem speaking:
Once, it is a capital city of Lydian, a local, regional, kingdom. They have their own coin with eagle and lion images. First of all, the first minted money coin was minted here in Sardis by the Lydian in the 6th century by King Croesus. Trading then is very important. Neither gold or silver but rather a combination of two metal called electrum coins. It is quite small but they do have imperial seal of Lydian kingdom. In the 6th century B.C. when the first coin money was minted.
Archaeologists also found coins that are really surprised them. These coins are not either silver or gold but fake coins. In others words, there were already plenty cheaters before. They look exactly the same in looks but not in the weighs. Not until the Lydian coins that the state guarantee this piece of monetary unit yet they already cheating by then.
(Peps: Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver with a small amount of other metals. It was during the reign of King Croesus that the metallurgists of Sardis discovered the secret of separating gold from silver).
The largest Jewish synagogue in the world can be found in Sardis. We will go to gymnasium then we go to Temple of Artemis. And this is a hi-way that was built on the city. And this city is on top of an ancient city.
Excavations by American archaeologists from Cornell University for 50 years. In most places are layer and layers of time period. It is a Byzantine Architecture.
Here are where the public toilets in Roman styles. In Ephesus we see like that during Roman period.. Byzanine Latrine, sitting beside each other and they do it...
By 8th - 5th BC were the most glorious during Lydian and Roman period. These are the shops that period. These are original mosaics. Normally they were supported by benefactors. And the names of benefactors written on the floor..
Mark Fairchild speaking:
There it says " God fearing" mostly from Gentiles who become Christian, referring to "one God." That is monotheism. That is being proclaimed on this synagogue, even Paul preached that.
Aurelios with three letters, "God fearers, fulfil this vow"
Non-Jews can enter to this courtyard. But out there are only for the Jews. This is too big synagogues that can accommodate up to 1,000 people. Menorrah are carved in the pavements, some of them now in museums.
Diasphora means not in Jerusalem or outside Jerusalem. The Jews in Sardis are open- minded or liberal because next door is where you can find the Gymnasium. Gymnasium is where naked men would exercise. Gym means "naked " Here men, strictly men are into wrestling, running, etc
Jews in Sardis could be so wealthy to have such big property. They must be wealthy businessmen could be in coin business. i don't mean anything..
This synagogue has two parts - synagogues, holy place with torahs, and the outer one.
These tables they would rolls down the torah and read it loud and the congregation listened to it. The mosaic on the floors are not originals but they are now in museum. These columns supports much taller ceiling..
And interesting detail shows how liberal they were. Look at marbles tables with eagles figures? And with lions’ feet, they are Lydian. Not to the Jews supposedly because such human or animal figures are forbidden by the Torah. The animal figures in a temple is paganistic . They don’t mean, they are too liberal and wealthy.. Those status of lions..
The priest will come from the east. Torah is always the centre of everything, any other Hebrew Scriptures. The Pentateuch, the 5 books where God communicated with the people. They don't believe in New Testament. Those terms what Torah is all about...
The synagogue here is interesting because it is built outside the land of Palestine therefore it is called diaspora. Some settled here in Anatolia in the 2nd BC, around 3,000 families settled here in Anatolia and they spread out.
Also we know that Paul strategy first to share it to the Jews first ( Romans 1). When we get to this synagogue, most people in this city are not Jewish. That is why it says "'God fearers." 2nd they compromise their faith. Do not make any graven images. In Palestine, you cant see statues. Here in altar they are graven images like eagles, lions which tells us that they misinterpreted the Torah..
These are different Jewish images.
Domitian rules on worshipping emperor but the Jews were exempted. And the Jew as if saying God is in power. The gymnasium is being plastered. “Aristokraatar” can be seen as inscribed there and also these words, : "I am the one who is controlling.."
Two letters on that wall bears the words, "Sacred name, means "God. " Tomtokratar, means kratra ruler of all.
The contrast between the Jews although they compromise is that they know there is only one God and not Caesar.
Would you like stand on the shade?
Sardis was written by John. Rev. 3:1, " And unto the angel of the church in Sardis write; These things saith he that hath the seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars; I know thy works, that thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead. "
Marbles panel reads, "I with my wife Regina and my children in fulfillment of our vow executed from the gifts of Almighty God all the skoutlosis of the ( section wall.) and the painting ( of the ceiling or upper wall)."
Justification is Roman legal term used for Jesus justification.
Cornell University is the one who excavated this area. The wall dated 4th to 6th century. Donors reads, " citizens of Sardis:” as doctors, councilors, holders of government offices whose names were the ones inscribed on the marbles. Do you remember the southern portion of the mount where the Muslim's Al Aqsa Mosque is located?
There Jesus Christ was tried on the Mount of Olives. The Sanhedrin were numbered 70 members and it must be led by one person who is the chief high priest? Was it Christ when accused were approved by these 70 members? Remember that among the Sanhedrin there were followers of Christ like Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathaea? (Matthew 27:57). In other words, the pre-trial of Christ was illegal according to Roman Law.. It is illegal to try a person at night yet Jesus was held during the night time. In other words, Jesus was held in " kangaroo court" which is again illegal to Roman Law. Judicial proceeding held here (or anywhere) where there is a Jewish synagogue.
Mertem now speaking again:
Shall we go under the shade of fig tree?
What you see is a "Poletra" monument with marble pieces of the building called MARBLE PACING which are nicely restored by American archaeologists. See those different columns? - They are Iconic Pergamesse, Corinthian, composite, very fancy facade with ... also in this gymnasium, you see the inscription of the words "god" and the word, "emperor."
(PEPS : In other words, this Jewish synagogue supports the Roman Emperor and it is a compromising faith-system group?)
The gymnasium is strictly for men only, a place where naked men would. After exercising and have had heavy sweats, they would take the common Roman Bath. And there is a trace of pool out there. See that?
Inscriptions are important. This Sardis church honours the emperor of Rome because it inscribed there on those stones This synagogue also honours even the Roman senate, the metropolis of Rome and Asian metropolis...
Daniel Balais led the prayer:
These are ruins but they are witnesses to what you call to Sardis they they are alive but they are dead. We pray life to this Sardis church. We bless the Church of Sardis, "for the knowledge of God will cover the earth as the waters covers the sea."
; Sardis or Sardes (/ˈsɑːrdiːz/; LydianOld Persian: Sparda) was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005) in Turkey's Manisa Province.
Sardis was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, one of the important cities of the Persian Empire, the seat of a proconsul under the Roman Empire, and the metropolis of the province Lydia in later Roman and Byzantine times. As one of the Seven churches of Asia, it was addressed by John, the author of the Book of Revelation in the Holy Bible, in terms which seem to imply that its population was notoriously soft and fainthearted. Its importance was due first to its military strength, secondly to its situation on an important highway leading from the interior to the Aegean coast, and thirdly to its commanding the wide and fertile plain of the Hermus.
We will drive a bit. Wherever you go, you see archaeological remains... We will have a short visit to the Temples of Artemis
King Miletus... When you look at that river where gold refinery is... you will find that this is a rich land. This is an area where there a great deal of gold resources.
(Peps: King Miletus is said to be a king of Athens according to Hittite sources
Sardis was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, one of the important cities of the Persian Empire, the seat of a proconsul under the Roman Empire, and the metropolis of the province Lydia in later Roman and Byzantine times. As one of the Seven churches of Asia, it was addressed by John, the author of the Book of Revelation in the Holy Bible, in terms which seem to imply that its population was notoriously soft and fainthearted. Its importance was due first to its military strength, secondly to its situation on an important highway leading from the interior to the Aegean coast, and thirdly to its commanding the wide and fertile plain of the Hermus)
(Peps: Hermos is the river -god of Lydia Anatolia (modern Turkey)
This temple dedicated to Artemis who is being worshipped in Sardis and Anatolia...It is 3rd AD year old and built during the Lydian Empire. This is a very important pagan worship. The pillar speaks saying, " I am the first pillar erected." Earlier you see local women who were cleaning a fragment of a ancient column that was recently excavated
(PEPS: I climbed to the reclined columns to reach a higher erected column with graffiti that reads, " phos” and “zoe" which is being referred by John 1:1-3 as the light and life. John the Beloved also mentioned life and light as inseparable words in His first epistle.
In Acts 19:24, Artemis is called “Diana” which means “complete light.” Artemis is called Tauric or Persian, the goddess of many Asiatic people who is distinguished as “Artemis” among the Greeks. Her temple was burned into ashes by Herostratus but afterwards it was rebuilt by Alexander the Great of a greater magnificence (Thayer). Artemis is derived from the Greek root word, “artemon” i.e. “a top-sail or foresail of a ship’).
It is built on ancient city. Look on the pine trees behind the buildings. That hill side was once where the acropolis of Philadelphia was built. If we have taken a mini bus perhaps we can go up there to see the theatre, the stadium and others. But the bus cannot go there anymore.
Alasheir is modern Philadelphia. It is famous for grapes. Philadel in Greek “phos” also means “brotherly love.” On the left is church ruins and gold refinery.
Mark Fairchild speaking:
We are now heading to Philadelphia. On your right hand side, you can see the mosaic and frescos on the city walls. Can you see the Stadium out there on the mountain? That slope is unexcavated still. There is more old ancient city walls are there.
(PEPS : Should I concentrate on the prophetic church of the end times? Jesus said, " I Am the alpha and the omega." You cannot survive as a church without learning from the church of the past and the church of tomorrow. That is what John written as I relates the present church today which I am representing today as we gear on the end time church of the future).
He is amazing driver. He can drive anywhere. On your right are ruins of Byzantine Church. Acropolis of ancient Philadelphia is up there at hills behind those pine trees. Imagine the size of this church. This must be up high with painting and recycled marble blocks pagan-buildings blocks..
Mark Fairchild speaking:
Jews was not responsive to Jesus. Why Jewish would not carry out what they are called for as a chosen nation?
In Matthew 23:13, Jesus rebuked the Pharisees and called them "hypocrites." The mandate of the Jewish nation was transferred to the Gentile. In 1 Peter 2:9, "But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation."
The Jewish people have forsaken what they been called for but Peter called this Gentile as " holy nation, chosen people" who responded positively to Christ. In verse 10, Peter continued, " Which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God: which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy. "
Rev. 3:7 "he that hath the key of David, he that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth." The Church of Philadelphia is now who holds the key of David...Philadelphia is a Gentile nation.
Jesus said "I place to you an open door that no one can shut" but that door was shut to the Jews.
The door is not a door of pleasure and luxury ... Christians resides here in Philadelphia and continued to share that door of salvation as priestly nation as God transferred the Jewish calling to Philadelphia, a Gentile followers.
Philadelphia was founded in 189 B.C. by Pergamon King Eumenes and given its name in honour of the love he had for brother Attalus.
We are called in the Philippines as Philadelphia Church that we may fulfil our calling as gospel -sending nation, a Gentile nation here in Turkey...
You promise there is an open door that no one can shut.. As a church in the Phils we have come here to proclaim the gospel in Asia to here ... May we remain faithful...
The gospel started here... From Jerusalem to Asia Minor and you said, " Isles rejoice," and Philippines is here proclaiming your Gospel.
We call the young people, Isaac, Tanya and Roxanne as we commit our younger generation to the end time church of Jesus Christ....(Then Pastor Joel prayed over them)
Ed de Guzman
Thank you for calling families just like in the time of Abraham on how to live a life of obedience and on how the children become obedient to their parents. We sanctify our lives as parent to this generation. Let this would be a prophetic families, the bows and the arrows...
We anoint this city for the Lord Christ. Let the grapes and olives will bring forth the wine and the oil … We bless this city and the people and your church, whoever the remnant church is, even the secret believers ...let the wind of the Spirit from the east, west, north, south breathe over your people ... Bless even Turkey and the city of Philadelphia even as you have called Philippines as the Philadelphia church may bring glory and honour in Jesus name.
(Peps: Philadelphia is a city of Lydia in Asia Minor, situation near the eastern base of Mount Tmolus, founded and named by the Pergamene king, Attalus II Philadelphus. After the death of Attalus III in 133 B.C., together with his entire kingdom came by his will under the jurisdiction of the Romans according to Thayer).
We have done for the day. We are heading to Pamukkale. It is 2-hour drive and we will stay there overnight. On you right is Philadelphia’s ancient wall.
(PEPS: 6:40 P.M. We just entered Pammukale and our bus stopped at Calcium Terraces at Pamukkale giving a breath-taking view of a snow-capped like mountainous terrain that contained very large calcium-deposit coming from various hot-springs in this region.
We are now in Heirapolis, Turkey. Heirapolis is a Roman Empire Spa city. Pamukkale means "cotton castle," located at north-eastern side of Turkey)"
From ancient Heliopolis is just 10 km drive to Laodicea. Heliopolis is large city and interesting place to visit. Then we will have 3- hour drive to Laodicea tomorrow. .
Hotel here is thermal hotel. It has curing properties, with natural hot and therapeutic which is being used even during ancient times. Our hotel had outer and inner thermal pool.
There are ancient places here like the necropolis means cemetery. We will leave 8:30 AM tomorrow. We will visit first to Heliopolis then drive to Laodicea. Thermal waters are coming out from the ground. It has plenty of mineral which contain iron also. It coloured red.
The character of this area is the same just like of the ancient part. This is our place. : Karahayit Doga Thermal Health & Spa Hotel and Resort. Address at Karahayit, Pamukkale. On the 1st floor with sauna, spa, pools, 9:30 pm. The Indoor pool opens till 10:30 pm. There is also a pool indoor. The 2nd Floor is the restaurant and 3rd Floor are the rooms. Breakfast at 7am and baggage must be placed to the bus at 8am.
Ancient god awakened?
JUN 13/ TUE; 7:50 A.M.
PEPS: While we were on the breakfast dining table, two of our diners shared that 6.2 earthquake hits coast of Izmir when we left while we were heading northeast of Turkey called, Pamukkale. Is it our prayers in Smyrna or Izmir have awakened the ancient gods? Will there be an end time church rising on these last days from Izmir?
My travel agency called me up. They said you' re needing a visa in Patmos because it is a part of Greece. Anybody who have a Greek visa? Oh nobody. We will have a problem then... Let me call our office then and ask them what they can do?
That is an ancient city established by Hellenistic in 3rd BC. Also in Roman Empire. They built Roman administrative buildings, Roman bath, etc. Heliopolis became a major city in Roman era.
Laodicea and also Colossae are parts of Heliopolis. The valley at your right is fertile and it is a major agricultural farmland in Turkey. From there, water flows to River Meander that comes to this way that is attach to Lycos River passing three cities.
According to Jeremy Seal (2013), the Meander river as it was known in classical times – it's now called the Büyük Menderes is located in the uplands of western Turkey to where it empties into the Aegean.
All along this fabled valley – scattered with ruins of King Xerxes, Alexander the Great, campaigning Byzantine emperors, Crusader kings and raiding Turkish sultans in their times.) There are three cities of along Lycus River in Pamukkale : Heliopolis or Heriapolis, Laodicea, and Colossae. Colossae is smaller city and it is still unexcavated. Laodicea has marvellous sights with more excavations and new archaeological information. These three cities in this river Lycus or Lycos is very important river during ancient times.
Heliopolis have been existing since the Roman Empire on 3rd AD. Heliopolis is considered a natural wonder because of thermal water listed in UNESCO Heritage list. It is an honour given to country once sights is listed).
Are you familiar with UNESCO? Oh your country is also listed under UNESCO. What UNESCO does is to send researchers once every two years and they would check the sights whether it is being preserved or not. This place have been exposed to tourism in 1970s. Tourism is now new in Turkey. Sarcophagus are found on this place also. There is thermal water everywhere. So they put all these hotels in the 1960's. I mean huge, big hotels.
But in 1990's as they kept using this source of water it eventually dried up. The water also lost its true natural colour and turned white and became calcium. With this came lots of protest against destruction to environment. Until it became nationwide protest. It was in fact a revolution. These five huge hotels were removed in this area. And they only preserved one. The one left was the hotel with a pool which is named after "Cleopatra." I was a tourist guide then in 1985. I've been in these hotels.
(PEPS: Sarcophagus are stone-coffins typically inscribed or adorned with ancient inscriptions from Egypt, Rome and Greece).
9:15 A.M., I will show you the ruins. You can take photos on the theatre. Keep walking. New excavation is found in a new street. You will see channels, much natural channels. So many spring waters all the way from these mountains thus creating natural channels. Here are more water channels... All over, water is flowing. There are ruins, here and there. This is a huge place. 35 years ago, there were hotels here in these woods. And I have my own private pool in my room.
This carbonate ice from thermal water is 13- Million years old. This place is more older than Roman Empire. This has been in this place for the ages. It is not boiling hot but warm. What’s happening now is the amount of water is getting better unlike what I told you before that the water decreased considerably alarming. Now the water is increasing and they keep it flowing. Once every hour, waters are being restored to its original colour. The government is now controlling the area.
Follow me and we will go there … It is a Roman bath. I will tell it to you more later on. Nobody lives here. They only open it during daytime. There is where we are... It is continuing slopes going down if you want to see more. This was built by Pergamun Kingdom. There were more constructions made during the Roman Period. That building on your left was once a Roman bath. This is what Roman became most famous for.
This is the Museum containing artefacts, pieces of jewelries, etc. They were only kept here only in this place Look at this building with " Antique Pool, " signboard, yes, right there in the entrance.
That was once of the first five hotels built in the 1960' s. This hotel has been built right where the ancient place was. This is the only hotel out of those 5 huge hotels that is being preserved. Why? I will tell you later.
(PEPS: When I asked Emile Meltem whether those columns, pillars, and stone under the water of Cleopatra's Pool are all originals, she nodded her head for affirmation. And I felt sorry for the hotel owner or investors to mishandle such a priceless archaeological relics because of their ignorance on science and history).
That is what remains of this fountain. That ‘s the Temple of Apollo. Anyone who can walks with me, I can point out the details. There are plenty of archaeological artefacts there and some interesting plutonium. Pluto is god of the underworld. Poisonous gas is coming from the ground.
Ancient people didn’t recognize that and they associated the poisons with god Apollo together with the priests. So they offered animals and they will hold their breath as they come closer to this site and then they will offer blood and animal sacrifices. And they would come from this hole (called as plutonium) associating it as if they are coming back to life.
This place is called Plutonium. The Temple of Apollo is there. Then there is a theatre that can hold 10,000 people. Farther, farther up to the theatre, there are stairs, where you find martyrdom of St. Philip. That was there? Those trees are blocking it. Can you see the remains? That where Philip was martyred. This is important pilgrimage sight especially in Byzantine time.
Quite recently, that was four years ago they found the Tomb of Philip. They could not found it first. Then they finally discovered another place nearby till they found the tomb of Philip, the evangelist.
There is another theatre. That one there on the slope of a hill. There’s another gate there with more Romans bath and many tombs. Most of the times we spent at least two days here to explore Heliopolis. Those are the things to see if you want to walk on ancient times, walking barefoot, be careful, too slippery. Walk on biblical times. We will go separate ways. Who will go with Mark? They will be going to St. Philip's Tomb. That is too far from here. You should be at the bus at 12:30 PM. Who will go with me here? Oh many would like to go with Mark!
Mel (that is Meltem) said there are 3 cities. Actually there are four (4) cities : Heliopolis, Laodicea, Colossae, and Tripolis which is further north (a newly excavated city). Those are four wealthy cities.
Most cities have only one theatre. That is Hellenistic theatre. What was preserved most is Roman theatre. That is colonnaded lanes which is so expensive.
Why those 4 cities are worthy? They are trading centres. There trade flows to the Aegean coast, they would come up here. Others from interiors will also come here. And they have found four agoras (markets) here... This is issue of money especially in Laodicea.
The Dionysian Gate is out there. You must be familiar of that name by this time now. He was an emperor who wanted to be worshipped.
(PEPS: Dionysus; God of the vine, grape harvest, winemaking, wine, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, and theatre )
Heliopolis is the largest in Turkey. It is so massive. There are plenty of Jewish tombs and menorahs here. That's important. You know that place is what more important to see when there is a Jewish presence.
Paul is NOT the founding fathers of these churches - Colossae and Laodicea . It was Epaphroditus or Epaphras who established these churches (Phil. 2:25; 4:18; 4:23; Colossians 1:7' 4:12; Philemon 1:23). Epaphratus is the disciple of Paul. That is why it says almost all that are in Asia have heard the word of God, "And this continued by the space of two years; so that all they which dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks," (Acts 19:10)
(PEPS: "Asia" in Greek "Asia" or "orient" refers to "proconsular Asia “ embracing Mysia, Lydia, Phrygia, and Caria corresponding closely to Turkey today". Strong call it "Asia Minor.").
These cities are said to be evangelised by Epaphras and he knew the apostles. He wrote 5 books of what Jesus said. Epaphras was seen talking with the apostles and he collected 5 volumes of what Christ was taught. Sadly, nothing happened but only bits were preserved like Eusebius wrote little about Epaphras writings. "A pastor in Christian" writes there by Paphos when Jesus died.
(Peps: In the founding myth, even the town's name is linked to the goddess, as the eponymous Paphos was the son (or, in Ovid, daughter) of Pygmalion according to Pygmalion's father was Belus, whose ivory cult image of Aphrodite was brought to life by the goddess as "milk-white" Galatea. Paphos is a coastal city in the southwest of Cyprus and the capital of Paphos District. In antiquity, two locations were called Paphos: Old Paphos, today at Kouklia). .
Plutonium is one of the entrances of hell. Jesus said "The gates of hell shall not prevail against the Church,” in Matthew 16:18. “Those who want to go to Philip tomb, you can go “, says Emile Meltex.
(Peps: Hell is named after Hades or Pluto, the god of the lower regions. Orcus, the nether world, the realm of the dead. Later the name of the word is being referred to grave, death or hell).
These are the Roman baths. Hierapolis of Phrygia was built in 2nd AD. There was one true person named Papias a bishop from Laodicea. This is his tombstone.
(PEPS: Papias seemingly was a true Christian. History and traditions says he was a leader in the city in Asia Minor called Hierapolis. There were other apparent true Christian leaders from there including Apollinaris and the Apostle Philip (who reportedly died there). The Catholic Encyclopedia notes that Papias was Bishop of Hierapolis (close to Laodicea and Colossae in the valley of the Lycus in Phrygia) and Apostolic Father, called by St. Irenaeus, "a hearer of John, and companion of Polycarp, a man of old time. Tripolis is a part of the donations by Marc Antony to Cleopatra. 117–138 CE: Under Emperor Hadrian. Tripolis has a transitional Mediterranean/continental climate. In other words, the movie entitled “Anthony and Cleopatra” is not mythological but rather historical).
Faustina Gate & Cleopatra Pool
We are passing by Faustina Gate. This is original gate of the city. And that is where the Antique Pool known as Cleoapartra Pool. Look at those minerals on this water... Per chemical analysis it consist of the following: Manganese, selenium, potassium; sodium, calcium, manganese, ammonium, iron, etc. There were all ancient pillars stood, where the modern hotel was built. And it was called Cleopatra's Pool.
Apollo, deity of Hierapolis
Original ancient pillars and columns are hewn down under the pool water. This is where the priests walks in... you see these paths? The Apollo Temple is chief deity of Hierapolis. They holed up on these holes.
Philip, crucified upside down
The Church told us that Philip came to Asia Minor. Traditions tell us the proconsul wife was become terribly ill and she was healed by Philip's healing ministry. She became a Christian but not her husband. Philip was killed by consul during Dionysian rule. If you are a ruler, you must be loyal to the Emperor of Rome. The Italian archaeologists excavated this 5 years ago. Philip the evangelist was crucified here upside down.
Praetorium is found here in octagonal shape. Holy Sepulchre is also octagonal structure. Helena is when big event takes place.
(PEPS: Praetorium. The Greek word (praitorion) thus rendered in Mark 15:16 is rendered "common hall" ( Matthew 27:27 "governor's house", "judgment hall," ( John 18 .).
Daniel Balais led the Prayer
Thank Lord for the life of Philip who was the first cultural missionary. Thank you for the Philippines that it was named after Philip, the evangelist, and also bieng named after King Philip 11 of Spain. Thank you Lord that we just celebrated our 400 years or Jubilee. Thank for the blood of the martyrs as the seed of the Church... Even Philips means " love of horses, " I pray that your swift love like those of horses will encompasses the Philippines to evangelize o other countries like a swift horse to the Middle East, Himalayas, Indochina , China, with such a galloping speed. Every power and the gates of hell shall not prevail against the Philippines.
You said Philippines is a 7-head dragon slayer. As a covenant, let this delegation will be fulfilled right here and Philippines' calling which is derived from Philip the evangelist. May we sing this song, "Philippines is for Christ." ...Let heaven declare your glory...
Thank you lord that you did not allow us to become a Muslim country and sent Christianity in the Phil's and we became Asia's first Christian nation even we are surrounded with Muslim nations.
We, the end time generation are here to the threshold of our nation. As we come here to cry out for Abraham even to Ismail, come home Ismail come home Ismail. We are of the same sins and shortcomings, yet you have called us. Philippines is being called as Philadelphia, you called us an evangelist to the Middle East, to China, we stand in front of tomb of Philip to fulfil such calling, in the name of Jesus.
Even Philip was used to evangelize the eunuch and translated him, so we follow you as a calling after Philip, the Philippines. We declare that the calling of the Phil's will be fulfilled in our generation.
Even the political condition and the spiritual condition in the Phil's. Will not prevent the portals of hell in terms of calling of the church.
The fire of Spirit will come to the Philippines and consume the sins of the churches. Even you commended Philadelphia and Smyrna.
Our Destiny will be fulfilled in our generation. For this is the year of favor, restoration, and building up in Jesus name.” That ends Pastor Balais prayer.
12:25pm; Meltem speaking:
I have good news for you. You don't have the visa to Patmos, Greece right? Our travel office has just arranged for your one-day visa in Greece.
(Filipinos: clap, clap, clap...) But there is another problem. We worked out for your Patmos, Greece visa but if you use that you can no longer enter Turkey to get your connecting flight because you've got a single-entry only to Turkey.
In other words, our Patmos, Greece trip is cancelled and we will just replace it with another tourist site, a biblical place named "Miletus," remember that?
(Peps: Miletus can be found in Acts 20:15, 17 which is a maritime city, 16 km away from Ephesus).
Archaeologist Mark Fairchild speaking:
We are now in Laodicea near from Pamukkale (Heliopolis) ,,with unexcavated site here Collosse. These three cities (Tripolis not included in our itinerary).
Laodicea, prosperous city, it was built on a strategic highway. it is a city rich in textile production. It is in fact, the largest garment-producing city all over Turkey since ancient time. This made the city of Laodicea most famous that brought her much great wealth.
If Italy has Gucci for example and Armani cost thousands of dollars, Laodicea on the other hand made her famous because of her beautiful, expressive and expensive textile production. . Garments made from Laodicea is so very famous in ancient times and they made so much money out of this business.
Also in Laodicea are many well-known hospitals, mostly eye- hospitals where we have this herb that can cure blindness. Not until a massive earthquake hits Laodicea that brought a so much great damage.
The Romans in Laodicea asked for help from Rome to restore the city, but the local people said, "We do not need help We can rebuild the city." Laodicea has this banking city where merchants while travelling can borrow money.
There are two theatres, one is open in the morning and one in the evening (That speaks how this city is financially well-off). Excavations are being made under the sponsorship of a local businessman and the local government. …In 1990 when I came here, there was nothing much to see.
"And to the angel of the church in Laodicea write: 'The words of the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of God's creation.I know your works: you are neither cold nor hot. Would that you were either cold or hot!So, because you are lukewarm, and neither hot nor cold, I will spit you out of my mouth. For you say, I am rich, I have prospered, and I need nothing, not realizing that you are wretched, pitiable, poor, blind, and naked."
This is very wealthy city and a church like Heliopolis which has two theatres. They have colonnaded street which is exemplary expensive. . All the streets were colonnaded because they got money.
Laodicea has the following:
4 bath houses,
5 agora which are trade centres
This is where their wealth comes from. They bragged their wealth. When devastating quakes hits this region during the reign of wicked Emperor Nero, the city was utterly devastated. And Emperor Nero offered to rebuild then the devastated city.
God spoke to John His rebuke to Laodicean Church in verse 17 saying, "Because thou sayest, I am rich, and increased with goods, and have need of nothing; and knowest not that thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked:."
This is the city and a Church that compromised her faith. Compared to Smyrna when God commended this poor church saying, " And unto the angel of the church in Smyrna write; These things saith the first and the last, which was dead, and is alive; I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty, (but thou art rich)," says in Rev. 2:8-9. Babylonian in Revelation speaks of merchants.
This is the Syrian Gate, then the Ephesus Gate, then another gate, because there is a way there.
There is sewerage system then and shops, then a portico, with colonnaded lanes. They are called porticos and you find them also in Pergamum. . This street are unexcavated. There are few stones here. And two meter piles of dirt here. These are the original lanes. We go to the Temple A. Go this way... That is the colonnaded street..,
Columns here. You see the inscription of a cross over a menorah image? You see the relationship of Christianity and Hebrew faith as monotheism.
Daniel Balais led the prayer
Can we ask Jen and Susan to pray for the rich churches. Jen did pray.
Susan: “In behalf of our church. We ask forgiveness how we brag our new bldg. or equipments, without any loans made, we brag our high definition stereos.. As if we can exist on ourselves.. In behalf of businessmen if we manipulated the plan of our church against the plan of our church because we are bug givers... Even we build of our church, positioning ourselves all throughout the Philippines. In behalf of my pastors, and leaders for being boastful, even we have this song, " I love my church..."
We anoint this ground in Laodicea where this inscriptions we carved pertaining to Hebrew and Christians and even to the sons of Abraham the sons of Ismael.
Emile Meltem: 2:00 P.M.
There are more numbers of churches in Laodicea. And this is just one among them because of the quality of the expensive mosaic here so they excavated this first…This is a part of excavation area which is still untouched.
(Peps: Here is what David Padfield says on Laodicea: Laodicea was the chief city of the Lycus River Valley region. The full name of the city was Laodicea ad Lyceum (Laodicea on the Lycus). The city was originally known as Diospolis, "the City of Zeus".
The Greek deity considered to be the greatest of the Olympian gods. Homer, the Greek poet, often called Zeus "the father of gods and men," the ruler and protector of all.
The city was founded between 261 and 253 B.C. by Antiochus II Theos, king of Syria, and named in honour of his wife, Laodice (Laodike). "The early population of the city probably consisted of natives of the area, Hellenized Greeks and veteran soldiers in the army of Antiochus II" (Fatih Cimok, A Guide to the Seven Churches, p. 88).
The city became part of the kingdom of Pergamon and later passed into Roman hands in 133 B.C. Cicero, the famous Roman orator and statesman, served as governor of the province, residing mostly in Laodicea.
Laodicea was a great centre of banking and finance (Rev. 3:14-21). It was one of the wealthiest cities of the ancient world! When Laodicea was destroyed by an earthquake in 60 A.D., they refused aid from the Roman Empire and rebuilt the city from their own wealth.
"One of the most famous cities of Asia, Laodicea, was in the same year overthrown by an earthquake and without any relief from us recovered itself by its own resources" (Tacitus, Annals, 14:27).
"The city was at the crossroads of north-south traffic between Sardis and Perga and east-west from the Euphrates to Ephesus. Laodicea quickly became a rich city, rich enough to be able to rebuild itself without outside help after the destructive earthquake of 60 A.D. In common with many of the Hellenistic cities there was a prosperous Jewish colony established there well before the Christian era. The city's reputation was for its money transactions and the good quality of raven-black wool grown in the area." (Blake and Edmonds, Biblical Sites in Turkey, p. 139-140).
Laodicea was a great centre for the manufacturing of clothing -- the sheep which grazed around Laodicea were famous for the soft, black wool they produced. Laodicea was well known for it's school of medicine.
"One of the principles of medicine at that time was that compound diseases required compound medicines. One of the compounds used for strengthening the ears was made from the spice nard (spikenard? an aromatic plant,” Dr. Galen says that it was originally made only in Laodicea, although by the second century A.D. it was made in other places also. Galen also described a medicine for the eyes made of Phrygian stone. Aristotle spoke of it as a Phrygian powder. Ramsay tries to explain what kind of medicine it was by saying it was not an ointment but a cylindrical collyrium that could be powdered and then spread on the part affected. The term used by John in Revelation is the same that Galen uses to describe the preparation of the Phrygian stone. Would not these medicinal concoctions be a reason why John cautions the Laodiceans to buy 'ointment for your eyes so that you may see' (Revelation 3:18)?" (Blake and Edmonds, Biblical Sites in Turkey, p. 140).
"The principal deity worshipped in Laodicea was the Phrygian god Men Karou, the Carian Men. In connection with this god's temple there grew up a famous school of medicine, which followed the teachings of Herophilus (330-250 B.C.) who began administering compound mixtures to his patients on the principle that compound diseases require compound medicines." Writes Otto F.A. Meinardus, St. John of Patmos, p. 125).
Two of the doctors from Laodicea were so famous that their names appear on the coins of the city (Zeuxis and Alexander Philalethes).
The hot springs at Hierapolis, just six miles across the Lycus River valley and to the south, are probably what John had in mind when he spoke of lukewarm water (Rev. 3:15-17). No other city on the Lycus Valley was as dependent on external water supplies as Laodicea. Water was also piped in through an aqueduct from Colosse.
"The lukewarmness for which, thanks to this letter, the name of Laodicea has become proverbial, may reflect the condition of the city's water supply. The water supplied by the spring ... was tepid and nauseous by the time it was piped to Laodicea, unlike the therapeutic hot water of Hierapolis or the refreshing cold water of Colossae, “ writes by Rudwick and Green (1958); hence the Lord's words, 'Would that you were cold or hot!'" (The Anchor Bible Dictionary).
"Water piped into Laodicea by aqueduct from the south was so concentrated with minerals that the Roman engineers designed vents, capped by removable stones, so the aqueduct pipes could periodically be cleared of deposits." (John McRay, Archaeology And The New Testament, p. 248).
Our Lord did not accuse the brethren in Laodicea of apostasy, nor with following some false prophet or engaging in emperor worship. The church is accused of being "lukewarm" -- this is the only congregation about which the Lord had nothing good to say!
The remains of the city are basically unexcavated, so most of what we know about the history of the city comes from written sources. The remains of two theatres, one Greek and one Roman, are on the northeast slope of the plateau. A large stadium which also served as an amphitheatre, dedicated by a wealthy citizen to the Roman emperor Vespasian in 79 A.D., can be found on the opposite end of the plateau. The stadium was used for both athletic contests and gladiatorial shows. Archaeologists discovered a life-sized statue of the goddess Isis in the ancient nymphaeum, or monumental fountain.
The Gate to Ephesus, triple-arched and flanked by towers, was devoted to the Emperor Domitian (81-96 A.D.). On the south-west side stand a number of buildings built under Vespasian (69-79 A.D.). An aqueduct bringing water into the city ended in a 16 foot tall water tower which distributed water throughout the city.
"An inscription erected by a freed slave from Laodicea was dedicated to Marcus Sestius Philemon. It will be recalled that a Philemon who owned the slave Onesimus (Philem. 10) was a leader in the church of Colossae. We cannot identify this Philemon with the slaveholder to whom Paul wrote, but the coincidence of the inscription from the same area is intriguing, especially since it refers to the manumission of a slave,” according to the writings of John Mc Ray, “Archaeology And The New Testament,” p. 247.
What can you learn from these churches? Laodicea took great pride in her financial wealth, yet the Lord told them to buy "gold refined in the fire, that you may be rich." Laodicea took pride in its clothing, yet the Lord told them to buy "white garments, that you may be clothed, that the shame of your nakedness may not be revealed." Laodicea took pride in its eye medicine, yet the Lord told them to buy "anoint your eyes with eye salve, that you may see” in Revelation 3:18.
The Lord’s Supper
The Lord promised to "dine" ("sup" KJV) with the one who would hear His voice and open the door (Rev. 3:19-20). "The word translated sup is deipnein and its corresponding noun is deipnon. The Greeks had three meals in the day. There was akratisma, breakfast, which was no more than a piece of dried bread dipped in wine. There was ariston, the midday meal. A man did not go home for it; it was simply a picnic snack eaten by the side of the pavement, or in some colonnade, or in the city square. There was deipnon; this was the evening meal; the main meal of the day; people lingered over it, for the day's work was done. It was the deipnon that Christ would share with the man who answered His knock, no hurried meal, but that where people lingered in fellowship. If a man will open the door, Jesus Christ will come in and linger long with him." (William Barclay, The Revelation Of John, Vol. 1, pp. 147-148).
Peps: 2:45 PM….It is lunchtime. At 4:00 P.M. we are back on the road again heading to Kusadasi. Kusadasi is a port city. We will drive by the river. On this very fertile valley. Lush and green. Everything can be grown here. Pomegranates, peaches, , apricots, fig trees, vegetables, wheat, corn, plum, etc.